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In Argentina, Juan Manuel Rosas and in Mexico Antonio Lpez de Santa Anna are exemplars of caudillos.

With the abolition of black slavery in 1888, the Brazilian monarchy fell in 1889.

[301][302], In 2013, the Southeast Region used about 50% of the load of the National Integrated System (SIN), being the main energy consuming region in the country.

Such countries came to be called banana republics. ", "So Mateus o 6 maior produtor de madeira em tora para papel e celulose no pas, diz IBGE", "Indstrias caladistas em Franca, SP registram queda de 40% nas vagas de trabalho em 6 anos", "Fenac Centro de Eventos e Negcios | Produo de calados deve crescer 3% em 2019", "Abicalados apresenta Relatrio Setorial 2019", "Minas Gerais produz 32,3% do ao nacional em 2019", "O novo mapa das montadoras, que agora rumam para o interior do Pas", "Indstria automobilstica do Sul do Rio impulsiona superavit na economia", "Produo nacional da indstria de qumicos cai 5,7% em 2019, diz Abiquim", "Brasil tem 9 dos maiores aeroportos da Amrica Latina", Raking on the number of airports per country, "Port Activity of Latin America and the Caribbean 2018", "The World Factbook Central Intelligence", "Produo de petrleo e gs no Brasil ultrapassa 4 milhes de boe/d pela primeira vez", "How many power plants do we have in Brazil?

Parts of Central America and northern South America are more diverse in that they are dominated by Mestizos and whites but also have large numbers of Mulattos, blacks, and indigenous, especially Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama. One notable international conflict was the War of the Pacific from 1879 to 1884, in which Chile seized territory and resources from Peru and Bolivia, gaining valuable nitrate deposits and leaving Bolivia landlocked with no access to the sea.

In the fifteenth century, both Portugal and Spain embarked on voyages of overseas exploration, following the Christian Reconquista of Iberia from Muslims.

The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Belize, mostly by the Garifuna people, a mixed-race Zambo people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves.

Jews and other non-Catholics, such as Protestants (all called "Lutherans") were banned from settling and were subject to the Inquisition. Its main representatives are Jess Soto, Carlos Cruz-Diez, Alejandro Otero and Gego. The Viceroyalty of New Spain also had jurisdiction over the Philippines, once the Spanish established themselves there in the late sixteenth century. Although most countries created written constitutions and created separate branches of government, the state and the rule of law were weak, and the military emerged as the dominant institution in the civil sphere.

Other Latin American economies followed suit, with hyperinflation and the inability of governments to meet their debt obligations and the era became known as the "lost decade.

Using techniques of warfare honed in their early Caribbean settlements, Corts sought Indigenous allies to topple the superstructure of the Aztec Empire after a two-year war of conquest. The French also sought commercial ties to Latin America, to export luxury goods and establish financial ties, including extending foreign loans to governments, often in dire need of revenue.

[95], The Great Depression was a worldwide phenomenon and had an impact on Latin America.

Chile, Argentina, and Brazil actively recruited labor from Catholic southern Europe, where populations were poor and sought better economic opportunities. The monarch was the patron of the institutional church. The southern cone region, Argentina, Uruguay, and Chile are completely dominated by whites and mestizos. Although the initial overthrow of the Somoza regime in 197879 was a bloody affair, the Contra War of the 1980s took the lives of tens of thousands of Nicaraguans and was the subject of fierce international debate.

In renewable energies, in 2020, the country ranked 45th in the world in terms of installed wind energy (0.5 GW), 76th in the world in terms of installed solar energy (0.1 GW) and 20th in the world in terms of installed hydroelectric power (12.6 GW). Demand for commodities fueled armed conflicts for territory with economic potential. In Mexico, following the abdication of Emperor Iturbide in 1823, Mexican political leaders wrote a constitution for its newly declared federated republic, the Constitution of 1824.

Accessed 27 June 2021,, "Is there a right-wing surge in South America? However, Cuba lacks freedom of expression; dissenters were monitored by the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, and travel was restricted. General Santa Anna was elected president in 1833 and was in and out of office until 1854. Paraguay is currently the 6th largest producer of soy in the world and entering the list of the 20 largest producers of maize and sugarcane. ", "Brazilian onshore wind potential could be 880 GW, study indicates", "Nuclear Power in Brazil. Pope Alexander VI in 1493 had bestowed on the Catholic Monarchs great power over ecclesiastical appointments and the functioning of the church in overseas possessions.

International co-productions with Latin America and Spain continued into this era and beyond, and Venezuelan films of this time were counted among the works of New Latin American Cinema. He was assassinated on 24 March 1980 while saying mass. The pre-Columbian civilizations of Mesoamerica and the highland Andes became sources of pride for American-born Spaniards in the late colonial era and for nationalists in the post-independence era. [124], Indigenous movements account for a large portion of rural social movements, including, in Mexico, the Zapatista rebellion and the broad Indigenous movement in Guerrero,[127] Also important are the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) and Indigenous organizations in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia, pan-Mayan communities in Guatemala, and mobilization by the Indigenous groups of Yanomami peoples in the Amazon, Kuna peoples in Panama, and Altiplano Aymara and Quechua peoples in Bolivia.[124].

Following World War II, the United States policy toward Latin America focused on what it perceived as the threat of communism and the Soviet Union to the interests of Western Europe and the United States. Ancient Maya had the most sophisticated textually written language, but since texts were largely confined to the religious and administrative elite, traditions were passed down orally. Transport in Latin America is basically carried out using the road mode, the most developed in the region. : the politics of evangelical growth.

Liberals sought a new model of government, a constitutional monarchy, with limits on the power of the king as well as on the Catholic Church.

Spanish America's fragmentation into republics with weakened state structures meant that political turmoil and violence on many levels was a characteristic of the era throughout the region. Pedro declared Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822 and became emperor. [189], Among people between the ages of 13 and 17 years, only 80% are full-time students, and only 66% of these advance to secondary school.

Kiernan, James Patrick. Idea de un Congreso Federal de las Repblicas),[7] by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao. [19] Edward Shawcross summarizes Ardao's and Rojas Mix's findings in the following way: "Ardao identified the term in a poem by a Colombian diplomat and intellectual resident in France, Jos Mara Torres Caicedo, published on 15 February 1857 in a French based Spanish-language newspaper, while Rojas Mix located it in a speech delivered in France by the radical liberal Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in June 1856". Production manages to supply the country's demand. In third place, Colombia stands out: In 2020, the country was the 20th largest petroleum producer in the world, and in 2015 it was the 19th largest exporter. It resulted in the movement, with British help, of the Portuguese royal court to Brazil, its richest colony. Other influential Latin American sounds include the Antillean soca and calypso, the Honduran (Garifuna) punta, the Colombian cumbia and vallenato, the Chilean cueca, the Ecuadorian boleros, and rockoleras, the Mexican ranchera and the mariachi which is the epitome of Mexican soul, the Nicaraguan palo de Mayo, the Peruvian marinera and tondero, the Uruguayan candombe, the French Antillean zouk (derived from Haitian compas) and the various styles of music from pre-Columbian traditions that are widespread in the Andean region. A few years later in 1983 with Viernes Negro, oil prices dropped and Venezuela entered a depression which prevented such extravagant funding, but film production continued; more transnational productions occurred, many more with Spain due to Latin America's poor economic fortune in general, and there was some in new cinema, as well: Fina Torres' 1985 Oriana won the Camra d'Or Prize at the 1985 Cannes Film Festival as the best first feature.

The term is sometimes used more broadly to refer to all of the Americas south of the United States.

Liberation theology informed the struggle by Nicaraguan leftists against the Somoza dictatorship, and when they came to power in 1979, the ruling group included some priests. Jos de San Martn, Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru.

Musicians such as Yma Smac, Chabuca Granda, Atahualpa Yupanqui, Violeta Parra, Vctor Jara, Jorge Cafrune, Facundo Cabral, Mercedes Sosa, Jorge Negrete, Luiz Gonzaga, Caetano Veloso, Susana Baca, Chavela Vargas, Simon Diaz, Julio Jaramillo, Toto la Momposina, Gilberto Gil, Maria Bethnia, Nana Caymmi, Nara Leo, Gal Costa, Ney Matogrosso as well as musical ensembles such as Inti Illimani and Los Kjarkas are magnificent examples of the heights that this soul can reach. Historian Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo explores at length the "allure and power" of the idea of Latin America. This was especially true for countries with strong presidential regimes, such as Brazil.

Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, although the Aztecs and Maya, for instance, produced elaborate codices. The French were expelled in 1867 and Emperor Maximilian executed by the victorious Republican forces, setting the stage for an era of stability and foreign economic investment a few years later when Porfirio Daz liberal hero of the war against the French, became president of Mexico for 30 years. liechtenstein

Reber, Vera Blinn "War of the Triple Alliance". 29th with 507 thousand barrels a day.

It consists of two pressurized water reactors, Angra I, with capacity of 657 MW, connected to the power grid in 1982, and Angra II, with capacity of 1,350 MW, connected in 2000. Chile the 51st largest (US$28.3billion).

In the Andes, llamas were domesticated and used to transport goods; Mesoamerica had no large domesticated animals to aid human labor or provide meat. IEA. Obtaining membership later were former colonial powers Spain (1979) and Portugal (1984).

At the time of European contact, the area was densely populated by Indigenous peoples who had not organized as empires, nor created large physical complexes. Military leaders often became the initial heads of state, but regional strongmen, or caudillos, also emerged. Britain and Portugal had long been allies against the Spanish and French, so British recognition of Brazil's 1822 independence followed quickly after Portugal's. Chile has almost 7,000km of railways, with connections to Argentina, Bolivia and Peru.

Poinsett concluded an agreement with Mexico confirming the terms of the Adams-Ons Treaty.

MacLeod, Murdo J.

4, 250. Imports from China valued $8.3B in 2000, but by 2019, its value was $184.2B and had grown to be the region's largest trading partner. The mining sector (copper, nitrates) continued to be important, but an industrial sector also emerged. Latin Caribbean music, such as merengue, bachata, salsa, and more recently reggaeton, from such countries as the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Panama, has been strongly influenced by African rhythms and melodies. Constitutional rule was a break from absolutist monarchy and gave Spanish America a starting point for constitutional governance.

The three most important highways in the country are Route 9, Route 7 and Route 14.

Brazil's monarchy, a branch of the House of Braganza, lasted until 1889.

[145] Recent economic liberalisation also plays a role as not everyone is equally capable of taking advantage of its benefits. At the end of his term, his hand-picked successor, the populist and nationalist Jacobo Arbenz, was elected. It remains the second largest operating hydroelectric in the world. 1980. [264] In the production of silver, in 2017 the country extracted 15,5 tons.

It is spoken as first language by about 60% of the population. [276][277][278][279] In 2019, the country was the eighth largest producer of vehicles and the ninth largest producer of steel in the world.

[267], In the production of coal, the continent had three of the 30 largest world producers in 2018: Colombia (12th), Mexico (24th) and Brazil (27th).[268]. The most widely-spoken creole language in Latin America and the Caribbean is Haitian Creole, the predominant language of Haiti, derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues, with Amerindian, English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well. [309] In 2020, Brazil was the 14th country in the world in terms of installed solar power (7.8 GW).

Many regions of Spanish America that were not well supplied by Spanish merchants, such as Central America, participated in contraband trade with foreign merchants.

Briefing Paper # 95", "Brazil plans to build seven nuclear reactors", "Boletim Mensal de Gerao Solar Fotovoltaica Julho 2021", "Gerao solar no Brasil atinge 14 GW, potncia equivalente usina de Itaipu", "Quais as melhores regies do Brasil para gerao de energia fotovoltaica? Almost the immediately, the U.S. reacted with hostility against the new regime.

Britain's nineteenth-century policy was to end slavery and the slave trade, including in Latin America.

"Searching for 'Latin America': Race and Sovereignty in the Americas in the 1850s" in Appelbaum, Nancy P. et al.

Neither area is culturally or linguistically homogeneous; in substantial portions of Latin America (e.g., highland Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Guatemala), Native American cultures and, to a lesser extent, Amerindian languages, are predominant, and in other areas, the influence of African cultures is strong (e.g., the Caribbean basin including parts of Colombia and Venezuela). ", Leonard, Thomas M. "Ostend Manifesto" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture (1996), vol. Wright, Thomas C., and Rody Oate Zniga. "Cuba since 1959". With the Spanish monarch no longer the patron of the church, many national governments asserted their right to appoint clerics as a logical transfer of power to a sovereign state. [296], The four major seaports concentrating around 60% of the merchandise traffic in Mexico are Altamira and Veracruz in the Gulf of Mexico, and Manzanillo and Lzaro Crdenas in the Pacific Ocean.

[43] By contrast, having no better prospects, the Spanish crown directed its energies to its New World territories.

In addition, the tolerance of dual citizenship has spread more in Latin America than in any other region of the world. Some Chinese immigrants who were excluded from immigrating to the U.S. settled in northern Mexico.

The war resulted in the resounding defeat of Mexico.

Gutmann, Myron P., et al. also stand out, as well as the metallurgical and mechanical industries.

Conservatives saw the church as politicized, and priests ask proselytizing leftist positions. Abolitionists in Brazil pressed for the end of slavery, which finally ended in 1888, followed the next year by the fall of the Brazilian monarchy.

Mexican cinema began in the silent era from 1896 to 1929 and flourished in the Golden Era of the 1940s.

[134], Wealth inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean remains a serious issue despite strong economic growth and improved social indicators.

[204] In 2017 77% of Latin Americans with HIV were aware of their HIV status. [23] Two events related with the United States played a central role in both works. [252], Colombia is the world's largest producer of emeralds.

It has an area of approximately 19,197,000km2 (7,412,000sq mi),[1] almost 13% of the Earth's land surface area.

Salvucci, Linda K. "Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)".

The politico-economical initiative was institutionalized in North America by the 1994 NAFTA, and elsewhere in the Americas through a series of similar agreements. The English, Dutch, and French permanently seized islands in the Caribbean and created sugar plantations on the model developed in Brazil. Evangelical churches often grew quickly in poor communities where small churches and members could participate in ecstatic worship, often many times a week. The U.S. was concerned that foreign powers could support Spain in its attempts to reclaim its empire.

In the aftermath of the Cuban Revolution, middle class and elite Cubans moved to the U.S., particularly to Florida. Its recognition of Ecuador's independence came in 1840 and Paraguay's as late as 1880. "[14], Historian John Leddy Phelan located the origins of the term Latin America to be from the French occupation of Mexico. However, in recent years, with the combined effort of countries, new routes have started to emerge, such as Brazil-Peru (Interoceanic Highway), and a new highway between Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina and northern Chile (Bioceanic Corridor).

As a global maritime empire, Portugal created a vital industry in Brazil.

The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported petroleum.

[199] Water and sanitation services are provided by a vast array of mostly local service providers under an often fragmented policy and regulatory framework. Venezuela, which was one of the world's largest oil producers (about 2.5 million barrels/day in 2015) and one of the largest exporters, due to its political problems, has had its production drastically reduced in recent years: in 2016, it dropped to 2.2 million, in 2017 to 2 million, in 2018 to 1.4 million and in 2019 to 877 thousand, reaching only 300,000 barrels/day at a given point. The two most important highways in the country are BR-101 and BR-116.

Mixing of groups was a fact of life at contact of the Old World and the New, but colonial regimes established legal and social discrimination against non-white populations simply on the basis of perceived ethnicity and skin color.

Ardao wrote about this subject in his book Gnesis de la idea y el nombre de Amrica latina (Genesis of the Idea and the Name of Latin America, 1980),[17] and Miguel Rojas Mix in his article "Bilbao y el hallazgo de Amrica latina: Unin continental, socialista y libertaria" (Bilbao and the Finding of Latin America: a Continental, Socialist and Libertarian Union, 1986).

Costa Rica is the world's largest producer of pineapples; Dominican Republic is one of the world's top five producers of, Mexico is the world's largest producer of avocados, one of the world's top five producers of, iron ore (where it is the 2nd largest producer and exporter in the worldiron ore is usually one of the three export products that generate the greatest value in the country's, Mexico had the twelfth most valuable industry in the world (US$217.8billion), Brazil the thirteenth largest (US$173.6billion), Venezuela the thirtieth largest (US$58.2billion, however, it depends on oil to reach this value), Argentina the 31st largest (US$57.7billion), Colombia the 46th largest (US$35.4billion).

[312], In 2020, Brazil was the 2nd largest country in the world in the production of energy through biomass (energy production from solid biofuels and renewable waste), with 15,2 GW installed.


Because inequality in gender and location are near-universal, race and ethnicity play a larger, more integral role in discriminatory practices in Latin America.

The 1854 leak of the Ostend Manifesto, offering $130 million to Spain, caused a scandal among abolitionists in the U.S., who sought to end the expansion of slavery. The main river ports are Zrate and Campana.

Irritu in 2010 directed Biutiful and Birdman (2014), Alfonso Cuarn directed Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban in 2004 and Gravity in 2013.

Among the main Brazilian waterways, two stand out: Hidrovia Tiet-Paran (which has a length of 2,400km, 1,600 on the Paran River and 800km on the Tiet River, draining agricultural production from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Gois and part of Rondnia, Tocantins and Minas General) and Hidrovia do Solimes-Amazonas (it has two sections: Solimes, which extends from Tabatinga to Manaus, with approximately 1600km, and Amazonas, which extends from Manaus to Belm, with 1650km.

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